Prevention of Obesity & Chronic Diseases

Digging Deeper into Obesity (free peer reviewed paper)

“The WHO estimated that in 2008, 1.5 billion adults aged 20 years and older were overweight and over 200 million men and 300 million women — approximately 10% of adults — were obese. In 2010, about 43 million children under five years of age were overweight (5). Obesity is no longer a problem for high-income developed countries alone. Indeed, the largest increases in obesity since 1980 have occurred in low- and middle-income countries, particularly in urban settings in Oceania, Latin America, and North Africa (Figure 1 and refs. 6, 7). While body fat content is undoubtedly influenced by genetics and maternal as well as perinatal factors, the recent global upsurge in obesity is due to a shift in diet toward energy-dense foods rich in fat and sugars but low in vitamins and other micronutrients (6, 7). There have been drastic increases in total calorie intake over the past two decades (Figure 2 and ref. 8). Epidemiologic data indicate that chronic intake of fatty diets and fructose and frequent consumption of fast food increase the risk of obesity (9–14). This is evident in developing countries where indigenous diets rich in vegetables, fruits, and fish have been replaced by cheaper and more energy dense Western diets (15, 16).”

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Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Disease (free WHO/FAO Report)

“During the past decade, rapid expansion in a number of relevant scientific fields and, in particular, in the amount of population-based epidemiological evidence has helped to clarify the role of diet in preventing and controlling morbidity and premature mortality resulting from noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). Some of the specific dietary components that increase the probability of occurrence of these diseases in individuals, and interventions to modify their impact, have also been identified.”

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Prevention of Chronic Disease by Means of Diet and Lifestyle Changes

“Coronary artery disease (CAD), ischemic stroke, diabetes, and some specific cancers, which until recently were common only in high-income countries, are now becoming the dominant sources of morbidity and mortality worldwide (WHO 2002). In addition, rates of cancers and cardiovascular disease (CVD) among migrants from low-risk to high-risk countries almost always increase dramatically. In traditional African societies, for example, CAD is virtually nonexistent, but rates among African Americans are similar to those among Caucasian Americans. These striking changes in rates within countries over time and among migrating populations indicate that the primary determinants of these diseases are not genetic but environmental factors, including diet and lifestyle. Thus, considerable research has been aimed at identifying modifiable determinants of chronic diseases”.

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OBESITY

CANCER

DIABETES

HEART AND STROKE

OTHER CLINICAL DISORDERS

INTERACTIONS BETWEEN GENES AND FOOD INGREDIENTS AND THEIR IMPACT ON HUMAN HEALTH (NUTRIGENOMICS)

FOOD NANOTECHNOLOGY